top of page



Peru has increasingly tied its economic fortunes to China in recent decades, a trend that has intensified with a surge of Chinese investments and strategic partnerships. While this close relationship promises economic benefits, including trade growth, infrastructure development, and job creation, it also brings significant drawbacks. Chief among these are economic dependencies, environmental degradation, and social unrest that could mar Peru’s long-term prospects.

Economic Entanglements

The recent talks between Chinese President Xi Jinping and Peruvian President Dina Ercilia Boluarte Zegarra underscore the depth of the bilateral relationship. China, Peru's largest trading partner, has embedded itself in the Peruvian economy primarily through massive investments in mining and infrastructure.

  1. Trade and Investment Dynamics:

  • China's investments, particularly in the mining sector, have bolstered Peru’s export-driven economy.

  • The free-trade agreements have facilitated a surge in mineral exports to China, mainly copper and other metals, which form the backbone of Peru's export economy.

  1. Dependency Risks:

  • The over-reliance on a single trade partner exposes Peru to significant risks. Economic fluctuations in China or shifts in Chinese demand could directly impact Peru’s financial health.

  • There is also the issue of trade imbalances, with Peru primarily exporting raw materials while importing finished goods from China, which could stifle local industries and innovation.

Environmental and Social Costs

China’s investments in Peru come with substantial environmental and social implications. A significant fraction of the Chinese projects in Peru have faced criticism for their environmental impact and handling of local communities.

  1. Environmental Degradation:

  • Mining operations, particularly the large-scale projects like Las Bambas, have led to environmental concerns, including deforestation, water contamination, and biodiversity loss.

  • Infrastructure projects, such as the Chancay megaport, could lead to coastal and marine ecosystem disruptions.

  1. Social Unrest:

  • Chinese projects have often clashed with local communities over land rights, environmental degradation, and insufficient community engagement.

  • The flagship Las Bambas project has seen periodic conflicts due to unaddressed grievances from local residents about environmental impacts and insufficient local benefits.

Lack of Diversification

Despite the free-trade agreement's promise to diversify Peru’s exports to China, this goal remains largely unfulfilled. The Peruvian economy remains heavily dependent on mineral exports, with limited progress in sectors like agriculture and manufacturing despite potentials.

Strategic and Geopolitical Concerns

The geopolitical ramifications of Peru’s deepening ties with China cannot be overlooked. The construction and control of the Chancay port by a Chinese state-owned company highlights significant strategic concerns:

  1. Military and Security Concerns:

  • While the discourse in Peru often paints an optimistic picture of the partnership with China, there is a notable silence regarding the potential military use of strategic infrastructures like the Chancay port.

  • This raises security concerns, especially from global powers like the United States, wary of China's expanding influence in Latin America.

  1. Sovereignty Issues:

  • Delegating critical national infrastructures to foreign state-owned enterprises can compromise national sovereignty and policy autonomy.

  • The risks of legal disputes and international arbitration, as indicated by the Chancay port debacle, underscore the complex entanglements that such partnerships bring.

The Path Forward

For Peru to reap the benefits of its relationship with China while mitigating the downsides, a balanced and critical approach is essential.

  1. Policy Reforms and Regulations:

  • Strengthening the regulatory framework around foreign investments to ensure environmental protection, fair labor practices, and community benefits is crucial.

  • Policies encouraging diversification of exports and reducing dependency on commodities are imperative for long-term economic resilience.

  1. Engagement of Other International Partners:

  • By fostering ties with other global economies, Peru can reduce its over-reliance on China and create a more balanced, competitive trade environment.

  • Engaging with US agencies, European corporations, and international NGOs for expertise and investments in sustainable development projects can provide much-needed diversification and innovation.

  1. Community Engagement and Transparency:

  • Enhancing transparency in dealings with Chinese firms and ensuring community involvement in decision-making processes can mitigate social unrest and build trust.

  • Initiatives to provide education and training to locals can ensure that the benefits of foreign investments are more equitably distributed.


Peru’s growing partnership with China holds both promise and perils. While it brings economic opportunities, the challenges of environmental degradation, social unrest, and over-dependence must be critically addressed. Balancing this relationship through strategic policy reforms, diversified engagements, and greater transparency will be key to ensuring sustainable and equitable growth for Peru's future.


bottom of page